What are wireless telecommunications base stations or cell sites?

Wireless telecommunications base stations (also called cell sites) consist of two distinct parts:  the electronic transceivers (also called radios or channels) that are connected to the traditional wired telephone lines, and the passive antennas that send the wireless signals created by the radios out to be received by customer mobile units.  Base stations and mobile phones communicate with each other using RF energy.  The RF energy is highest at the antenna, and drops significantly with distance, according to the inverse square law.  For example, if the distance from the antenna is doubled then the RF energy will reduce by four times, and if the distance from the antenna in increased fen-fold, then the RF energy will reduce by 100 times.